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Human Prudence and the Love of Offspring:
A Compilation of Passages from the Writings 1

by Rev. Robert S. Jungé

The Lord's truth is unalterable, even though each of us sees a different application of that truth to our particular state. The following passages are assembled in the hope that they will serve as a basis for reflection for any who seek understanding of the ideals, or guidance in difficult states.

Any such collection is bound to be influenced by the view of the compiler, but I have tried to limit my comments and structure to the minimum which seemed necessary to hold the study together. I sincerely hope that any of you will call additional passages to my attention and add your reflections. Long as it is, this is just a beginning of gathering together numbers on a subject where our lives must be ordered by the Writings to establish the conjugial in an increasingly alien world.

1. Human prudence is a servant and its judgments to be valid must be formed by the Word. Reason according to which man is led looks to the basic laws of order and Divine Providence, and must not be confused with natural reasonings. Human prudence standing alone and founded on natural considerations is not the servant of freedom, but hellish. Judgments concerning so basic a love as procreation must be made in the light of clear principles drawn from Revelation and those principles are not lacking in the Writings.

"...From this it follows that unless man, as if from his own prudence directs all things belonging to his employment and life, he cannot be led and directed by the Divine Providence; for he would be like one standing with relaxed hands, opened mouth, closed eyes, and breath indrawn, awaiting influx…. (2) If therefore, you wish to be led by the Divine Providence use prudence, as a servant and minister who faithfully dispenses the goods of his master. This prudence is the talent given to the servants to trade with, of which they must render an account. (Luke 19:13-18; Matt. 25:14-31). Prudence itself appears to man to be his own; and he believes it to be his own so long as he keeps shut up within him the deadliest enemy of God and of Divine Providence, the love of self ....Man opens this door by shunning evils as sins as if from himself, with the acknowledgment that he does it from the Lord. This is the prudence with which the Divine Providence acts as one." (DP 210)

"There is a likeness between the spiritual things of the mind and the natural things of the body, because all things of the mind correspond to all things of the body; therefore also the mind actuates the body in externals, in general with complete control. It moves the eye to see, the ear to hear,, the mouth and tongue to eat arid drink; also to speak, the hands to act, the feet to walk, the generative organs to propagate. The mind moves not only the externals to those actions, but the internals also throughout the whole series, the outmosts from the inmosts, and the inmosts from the outmosts. Thus while it is moving the mouth to speak, it simultaneously moves the lungs, the larynx, the glottis, the tongue, the lips, each one separately to the performance of its function, also the face to fitting expression. (2) This makes clear that what has been said of the natural forms of the body can be said also of the spiritual forms of the mind; and that what has been said of the natural operations of the body can be said of the spiritual operations of the mind; consequently as man orders the externals so the Lord orders the internals; thus in one way when man orders the externals from himself, and in another way when he orders the externals from the Lord and at the same time as if from himself. Moreover, man's mind in its entire form is a man; for it is man's spirit; and this after death appears a man precisely as in the world; consequently there are like things in body and mind. So what has been said of the conjunction of externals with internals in the body can also be applied to the conjunction of externals with internals in the mind, with the difference only that one is natural and the other spiritual." (DP 181).

"...(3) By means of His Divine Providence the Lord leads the affections of a man's life's love, and at the same time leads his thoughts from which human prudence is derived ...Those that have acknowledged nature alone and human prudence alone constitute hell; while those that have acknowledged God and His Divine Providence constitute heaven..." (DP 192).

2. Conjugial love goes hand in hand with an innocent willingness to be led by the Lord. The playfulness between married pairs particularly in the honeymoon state illustrates this, and hopefully this simple trust will remain as much as is humanly possible throughout all subsequent states.

"As true conjugial love in its first essence is love to the Lord from the Lord, it is also innocence. Innocence is loving the Lord as one's Father by doing His commandments and wishing to be led by Him and not by oneself, thus like an infant..."(AE 996:2). The number continues concerning the playfulness of love (see section 33 for the full reference.)

"...marriage love viewed in itself is a state of innocence..."(HH 382a) this number also speaks of the sports of innocence).

3. Marriages are the seminary of the human race and thence of heaven. They are therefore holy since through them man can cooperate with the inmost purpose of creation - a heaven from the human race.

"How holy in themselves, that is, from creation marriages can be seen from the fact that they are seminaries of the human race; and as the angelic heaven is from the human race they are also the seminaries of heaven, consequently by marriages not only the earths but also the heavens are filled with inhabitants; and as the end of the entire creation is the human race and thus heaven, where the Divine itself may dwell in its own and as it were in itself, and as the procreation of mankind according to order is accomplished through marriages, it is clear how holy marriages are in themselves, that is from creation, and thus how holy they should be esteemed... (6) When procreations of the human race are effected by marriages in which the holy love of good and truth from the Lord reigns, then it is on earth as it is in the heavens and the Lord's kingdom on earth corresponds to the Lord's kingdom in heaven ...(AE 988:5-6)

"...Marriages are seed plots of men, and thus seed plots of heaven..." (SD 6110:79).

"...That (adulteries) are heinous he might know from the fact that marriages are the seminaries of the human race and thus also the seminaries of the heavenly kingdom: consequently they must on no account be violated, but must be esteemed holy ...that marriage love descends from the Lord through heaven, and from that love, as from a parent, mutual love, which is the foundation of heaven is derived..." (HH 385) (cf AC 2733:2, "...from that love, as from a parent, is derived mutual love, which is the basis of heaven...")

4. Thought of use must govern all consideration of the external delights of marriage.

"...In uses all the delights of heaven are brought together and are present, because uses are the goods of love and charity in which angels are; therefore everyone has delights that are in accord with his uses, and in the degree of his affection for use ...The delight of marriage, which is a purer and more exquisite delight of touch, transcends all the rest because of its use, which is the procreation of the human race and thereby of angels of heaven. These delights are in these sensories by an influx of heaven, where every delight pertains to use and is in accordance with use." (HH 402)

5. The use of marriage is the procreation of offspring.

"...For (conjugial love) expands the inmost things of the mind, and at the same time the inmost things of the body, as the delicious current of its fountain flows through and opens them. It is because of the superior excellence of its use above all other uses that all delights from first to last are gathered into this love. Its use is the propagation of the human race and of the angelic heaven therefrom; and as this use was the end of ends of the creation it follows that all the states of blessedness, satisfaction, delight, gratification, and pleasure that could ever be conferred on man by the Lord Creator are gathered into this love..." (CL 68)

6. The love of offspring cannot be separated from conjugial love. Two universal spheres proceed from the Lord - conjugial love and the love of offspring - or the love of procreating and the love of protecting what is procreated. Note: the love of offspring which goes hand in hand with conjugial love seems to apply primarily to providing for what has been procreated, not to conceiving children. These two spheres with man, of procreating and then protecting, are linked to the Divine Providence which has as its end a heaven from the human race.

"That two universal spheres proceed from the Lord for the conservation of the universe in the state created; one of which is the sphere of procreating, and the other the sphere of protecting what is procreated ...The operations of uses through these spheres are the Divine Providence." (CL 386)

"That the spheres of procreating and protecting what is procreated or the spheres of conjugial love and the love of infants, inflow into all things of heaven and into all things of the world, from the first to the last, is because all things that proceed from the Lord, or from the sun which is from Him and in which He is, pass together through the created universe even to the very ultimates of all things thereof." (CL 389).

"The sphere of procreating, and the sphere of protecting what is procreated make one in a continuous series, because the love of procreating is continued into the love of the thing procreated. What is the nature of the love of procreating is known from its delight that it is super eminent and transcendent. In this is the state of procreation with men, and notably the state of reception with women. This highest delight with its love, follows into the bringing forth and there fills itself." (CL 390).

"...that the love of infants is conjoined perpetually with conjugial love is evident from the origin from whence it flows in. Although varied in those that receive, the loves yet remain unseparated, just as the first end is in the final end which is the effect. The first end of conjugial love is the procreation of offspring and the last end which is the effect is the offspring procreated…" (CL 385).

"That these two universal spheres make one with the sphere of conjugial love and with the sphere of the love of infants. That the sphere of conjugial love makes one with the sphere of procreating is plain; for procreation is the end, and conjugial love is the mediate cause, by which it is effected; and the end and cause in the processes of effecting and in the effects act as one, because together. That the sphere of the love of infants makes one with the sphere of protecting what is procreated is also plain, because it is an end proceeding from the prior end, which was procreation and the love of infants is the mediate cause whereby it is effected. For ends go forth in series, one after another, and in going forth the last end becomes first, and so on, even to the limit where they subsist or cease." (CL 387)

7. It is important that we consider the series carefully when we read of procreation as the end of marriages and conjugial love as the mediate cause, lest we somehow degrade conjugial love itself. The final end is a heaven from the human race in which conjugial love is established through a couple's mutual regeneration, producing one angel in that heaven. Heaven itself is conjunction with the Lord. This comes from the marriage of good and truth, and thus from conjugial love. The end of propagation is first in time, and the ultimate. But those who cannot have children or who have no partner in this world can still cooperate with the highest end of creation which is conjunction with the Lord and eternal happiness.

"The internal influx of conjugial love from the Lord is not perceived, but it becomes more perceptible and gives the more enjoyment as it descends; and from them in the ultimate effect it becomes the delight of delights (n 58). It becomes such delight from the highest end, which is in the Lord; namely, the propagation of the human race, and the angelic heaven therefrom, conjunction there with Himself and external happiness (n 58). (cf. CL 68, 69, 183) " (Second index on marriage p. 550 Conjugial Love).

"In correspondence with these all things that appear in the natural world have been created and for this reason like things exist there, with this difference, that these like the others are from a spiritual origin, but at the same time from a natural origin. This natural origin is added that they may be at the same time material and therefore fixed, and this to the end that the human race may be procreated, which can be done only in ultimates, where there is fullness; and further, that from the human race as a seminary the inhabitants of the spiritual world, who are angels, may exist. This is the chief and final end of creation..." (Div Wis XII:5;3)

8. How intrinsic this ultimate use of propagation is to conjugial love and its relation to other uses in marriage is also shown.

"That love truly conjugial is chastity itself. The reasons are these: 1) Because it is from the Lord, and corresponds to the marriage of the Lord and the Church. 2) Because it is spiritual from the marriage of good and truth. 3) Because it is spiritual just in the decree that the church is with men. 4) Because it is the fundamental love,-and the head of all loves celestial and spiritual. 5) Because it is the true seminar of the human race, and thence of the angelic heaven. 6) Because it therefore exists also among the angels of heaven and with them spiritual offspring are born of it, which are love and wisdom. 7) And because its use is thus pre-eminent above all the other uses of creation..." (CL 143)

9. The love of producing offspring is a natural love then, from a spiritual origin. With the good the spiritual origin is the conjunction of good and truth; but with the evil, it is the conjunction of evil and falsity.

"It has been said that conjugial love, which is natural, descends from the love of good and truth, which is spiritual ; this spiritual therefore is in the natural love of marriage as a cause in its effect. So from the marriage of good and truth there exists the love of bearing fruit, namely good through truth and truth from good; and from that love the love of producing offspring descends, in which there is all delight and pleasure... (3) There is every delight and pleasure in the love of producing offspring because all that is delightful, pleasurable, blessed and happy, in the whole heaven and in the whole world has been from creation brought together in the effort and thus into the act of producing uses; and these joys increase in an ascending degree to eternity according to the goodness and excellence of the uses. This makes evident why the pleasure of producing offspring which surpasses every other pleasure is so great. It surpasses every other because its use which is procreation of the human race, and thus of heaven, surpasses all other uses. (4) From this too, comes the pleasure and delight of adultery, but as prolification through adulteries corresponds to the production of evil through falsity and of falsity from, evil, that pleasure or delight decreases and becomes vile by degrees until it is changed at last into loathing and nausea..." (AE 991:2-3).

"That there is a conjugial sphere which flows in from the Lord through heaven into all things and every thing of the universe even to its ultimates. That love and wisdom, or what is the same good and truth, proceed from the Lord has been shown above in its own chapter. These two in marriage proceed continually from the Lord, because they are Himself and all things are from Him; and the things that proceed from Him fill the universe, for without this nothing that exists would subsist. [NB:] There are several spheres, which proceed from Him; as the sphere of the preservation of the created universe; the sphere of the protection of good and truth against evil and falsity; the sphere of reformation and regeneration; the sphere of innocence and peace; the sphere of mercy and grace; besides more. But the universal of all is the conjugial sphere; for this is also the sphere of propagation, and is thus the supereminent sphere of the preservation of the created universe by successive generations." (CL 222)

"...It is similar with the love of infants, because this by origin is from conjugial love ...It appears as if mothers have the love of infants from nourishing of them in the womb out of their own blood, and thence the appropriation to them of their own life, and thus from sympathetic union; but yet this not the origin of that love, for if, unknown to the mother, another infant were substituted for the true one after birth, it would be loved with equal tenderness as if it were her own. Besides, infants are sometimes loved by nurses more than by their mothers. It flows from these considerations, that this love is from no other source than the conjugial love inherent in every woman to which is adjoined the love of conceiving, from the delight of which the wife is prepared for reception; this is the first of that love, which after the birth with its delight, passes over fully to the offspring. (CL 393)

"That conjugial love is conjoined with the love of infants with parents, by causes spiritual and hence natural. The spiritual causes are: that the human race may be multiplied and from this the angelic heaven enlarged ...That natural causes of conjunction of these two loves are that those may be born who will perform uses in human societies and be incorporated in them as members." (CL 404)

But note:

(An angel mother has) "...as many children as she desires from a spiritual parental affection." (HH 332)

That the love of infants continues after death, especially with women ...These angels, because they loved all infants with maternal tenderness, receive them as their own; and the infants there, as if from inherent affection, love them as their own mothers. As many infants are with them as from spiritual maternal love they desire…." (CL 410)

10. There can be an internal love of offspring where for various reasons the couple is unable to procreate. There is a profound difference between not wanting and not having children. The pleasure of producing offspring surpasses other pleasures, but the love of offspring dwells within that pleasure, and within the love of offspring dwells conjugial love, the origin of which is the marriage of good and truth. Because these delights tie together in a series, the Writings sanction separation from those who hide their impotence prior to marriage.

"...When the understanding of truth which is with the man makes one with the affection of good which is with the woman, there is a conjunction of the two minds into one. This conjunction is the spiritual marriage from which conjugial love descends. For when two minds are so conjoined as to be one mind there is love between them; and when this love which is the love of spiritual marriage, descends into the body it becomes the love of natural marriage. That this is so anyone can clearly perceive if he will. A married pair who interiorly or as to their minds love each other mutually and reciprocally also love each other mutually and reciprocally as to their bodies. It is known that all love descends into the body from an affection of the mind, and that apart from such an origin no love exists...." (AE 983:3)

"...From this it follows that heavenly joys in their order and in their degrees have their origins and their causes from conjugial love..." (AE 993:2)

"...The love of marriage is so holy and heavenly because it has its beginning in the inmosts of man from the Lord Himself, and it descends according to order to the ultimates of the body, and thus fills the whole man with heavenly love and brings him into a form of heaven, and is an image of the Lord..." (AE 985:2)

"The procreation of offspring takes place on earth, because fullness is there; and the Divine operation is from firsts by ultimates (n 75) (cf CL 51)" (Second Index on marriage GENERATION)

"The most universal sphere of propagation, which is accomplished through conjugial love, perpetually inflows from the Lord. (n2)" (Second index on Marriage SPHERE)

"These reasons why they were so created: first, that there may be propagation of offspring [NB:] and of wisdom; second, it is from the love of the Lord towards the human race that they may be happy, because they would otherwise love themselves. (n54)" (Second Index on Marriage, FEMININE AND WOMAN)

"They have conjugial love who are in truths by means of the Word, and who wish to propagate them. (n 513-515, cf. CL 128)." (First Index on Marriage RELIGION)

(The following is extracts from the First Index; the whole citation should be read because it contains very broad food for thought)

"Procreations take place on earth, because they are from firsts by ultimates...In the marriage of good and truth there is what is generative and prolific, whence are the propagations of all things in the universe through which there is a continuance of creation ...Because goods and truths are in forms, therefore all things propagate themselves substantial and materially….Propagations are continuations of creation; and in them there is the image of the infinite and eternal,...The influx of the soul into the organs of generation, and the formation of the seed, thus of man ...Spiritual conjugial love is that from which, in which, and thus for which, there is conception, growth and formation….How conjugial love progresses from firsts through mediates to ultimates...Prolification corresponds to the love of producing and preserving the truths and goods of the Church... In the heavens there is spiritual prolification but not natural..." (First Index on Marriage PROCREATION, OFFSPRING, PROLIFICATION, PROLIFIC)

"...The reason why (impotence) is a cause of separation is, that the end of marriage is the procreation of offspring, and by such it is impossible and as they know this beforehand they purposely deprive their married partner of the hope of it, the hope which yet should nurse and strengthen their conjugial love..." CL 254).

11. The love of sex is an external natural which serves the sphere of propagation.

"That the love of the sex with man is not the origin of conjugial love but is its first; this it is as the external natural in which the internal spiritual is implanted ...The Lord foresees them and provides conjugial love for them; which love begins with them, it is true, from the love of the sex, or rather through that love, but it does not originate from that; for it springs up just in proportion as wisdom advances its step and comes forth into the life with him ...From this it is clear that the love of the sex is not the origin of love truly conjugial, but that it is first in time though not in end. For what is first in end is first in the mind and its intention, because it is the chief thing. But this first is not attained, except successively through means; and these are not in themselves first but are only things leading to that which is first in itself." (CL 98)

"...It follows from this that a Universal Conjugial Sphere proceeds from the Lord and pervades the universe from its first things to its last, thus from angels even to worms. The reason why such a sphere of marriage of good and truth goes forth from the Lord, is that it is the sphere also of propagation, that is of prolification and fructification; and this is the same as the Divine Providence for the conservation of the universe by successive generations... And as this same sphere is the sphere of prolification, it follows that from this comes the love of the sex." (CL 92)

12. A strong argument for the love of procreating as such an ultimate end of marriage can be built from the correspondence of the spiritual marriage of good and truth which produces uses. In this we should remember that correspondences are based upon two planes which communicate as cause and effect. The delights involved extend far beyond those associated with conception, even to the delight in producing, protecting and caring for what is produced. (cf. Section 9 above). These delights are all interwoven, and the tendency to focus on the delights of intercourse alone limits our whole understanding of the subject.

[NB:]"...There is correspondence of seminal potency with the reception of spiritual truths from the Lord through the Word, and with the affection for propagating them; thus with the spiritual affection of truth and at the same time with use (n 1357 - 1360) (cf CL 127, 220, 433). The correspondence of spiritual prolification is with the love of producing, and in the state of creation of conserving the truths and goods of the Church. (n 1361, 1362, cf. CL 115, 127). The correspondence of parental love is with the love of innocence, and of protecting it from evils and falsities. (n 1363 cf CL 127, 395:e)" (First Index on Marriage CORRESPONDENCE)

"As it is now manifest that there is a correspondence between natural and spiritual births, it follows that conception, gestation, birth and education are not only predicable of the new birth, but are states actually attending it,...At this point it is sufficient to say that man's seed is conceived interiorly in the understanding, formed in the will and transferred therefrom into the testes where it clothes itself with a natural covering. It is thus conveyed into the womb and so emerges into the world..." (TCR 584)

"...That conjugial love corresponds to the affection of genuine truth, to its chastity, purity, and holiness; that semination corresponds to the potency of truth; and that prolification corresponds to the propagation of truth; and that the love of infants corresponds to the protecting of truth and good. Now as truth in man appears as his, and good is adjoined to it by the Lord, it is plain that those correspondences are of the natural man with the spiritual or internal man…" (CL 127)

"...just to the extent that the truths in man are conjoined to good is man conjoined to the Lord and to heaven. This then is the very origin of marriage love and for this reason that love is the very plane of Divine influx..." (HH 371)

13. The love of offspring is the first derivation from conjugial love.

"It was related out of heaven, that the Most Ancients who were celestial, called conjugial love the chief of all loves, and the very delight of life, and (said) that love towards children is the nearest derivation from it." (SD 6110:30)

"...this love flows in from the Lord through a man's inmost, From this they have the Lord's kingdom in themselves and from this they have genuine love toward little children for the sake of the Lord's kingdom; this comes from that source as a stream from its fountain " (AC 2737) (cf de Conj. 118).

14. The procreation of offspring is therefore described as another purpose of marriage. Marriages are said to be holy because they have that purpose and also because they have a spiritual origin in the marriage of good and truth.

"Marriages in heaven differ from marriages on the earth in that the procreation of offspring is another purpose of marriages on the earth but not of marriages in heaven, since in heaven the procreation of good and truth takes the place of the procreation of offspring. The former takes the place of the latter because marriage in heaven is a marriage of good and truth; and as in that marriage good and truth and their conjunction are loved above all things so these are what are propagated by marriages in heaven. And because of this in the Word births and generations signify spiritual births and generations, which are births and generations of good and truth;..." (HH 382(b) (See the refs. in the footnote for the correspondences described).

"Marriages on the earth are most holy in the sight of the angels of heaven because they are seminaries of the human race, and also of the angels of heaven (heaven being from the human race, as already shown under that head), also because these marriages are from a spiritual origin, namely from the marriage of good and truth, and because the Lord's Divine flows especially into marriage love..." (HH 384).

15. Parental love, the love of infants or storgé, comes from the influx of innocence and peace into the external mind and is the natural cause of love and friendship between consorts. What can be inferred by the apparent drive of some to prevent offspring for the supposed end of greater companionship and peace between husband and wife?

"Parental love, or the love between parents and children (storgé). Various things respecting the sphere of innocence and of its protection from evils and falsities (n 1363) (cf. CL 127, 391, 395, 399)

"The love of infants and of children is an external or natural cause of love or friendship between consorts (n 1618-1621, cf CL 28 , 387, 404). Concerning the love of infants or parental love (n 1642–1699, cf CL 385-414). From the Divine Providence proceed two universal spheres; one, that of conjugial love; and the other, that of the love of infants (much concerning these spheres n 1644 - 1657 (cf CL 386-397) (see Sphere)..." The sphere of the love of infants flows into all living and animate things in the universe, and fills them with the love of innocence and peace, which love is receive b them in their own way. (n 1667, 1668 cf CL 392) ...Everyone living and animate receives this state into himself or herself after birth; nor is there knowledge that it inflows, because the influx is not felt (n 1669, cf. CL 391, 392)...This sphere of this love of innocence and peace inflows into the external minds (animus) of parents and also into infants, and it conjoins itself in their outmost parts, especially by the touch (1678, 2679, cf CL 396) .. (N.B. CL 396 says "souls" is the Latin manuscript an "a" or "o"?) The sphere of the love of infants progresses in a certain series from and through causes into effects, and it makes periods, by means of which creation is preserved and continued in the state foreseen and provided (n 1690-1692, cf. CL 400). This love between parents and children descends and does not ascend, and for this there are many reasons (1693 - 1698 cf CL 402). The conjunction of conjugial love with the love of infants or parental love (n 1701 - 1717, cf CL 404)...With consorts who love each other, conjugial love is conjoined with parental love through spiritual and rational causes, and natural causes from these which are with them from the Lord. n 1707 - 1709, cf CL 404) In the case of such consorts, there is parental love through the husband with the wife, and on the other hand there is parental love with the husband from the Lord through the wife; in consequence, the love of the one is also conjoined mutually and in its turn with the love of the other. (n 1710, 1711). With consorts who do not love each other, although there is not conjunction of those two loves from what is higher, interior, and prior, still there is a conjunction from what is lower, exterior, or posterior; but such conjunction is inverted, and consequently is light and wandering (n 1712, 1712 (cf CL 408). The love of parents towards their children remains after death, in the case of consorts who have loved each other, it is otherwise with those who have not loved each other (n 1714-17, cf. CL 410)." (First Index on Marriage PARENTAL LOVE, whole number again is important)(cf Also AC 2732)

16. Uses of intercourse which are additional to the production of offspring are clearly implied by love during pregnancy and in old age. (See sections 31 - 37 for a discussion of potency and the increase of delights as conjugial love is perfected)

"It is allowable to love a pregnant wife. The reasons are numerous. The arguments against it apply to the weakly; also during impotence and (in case of) adulteries." (SD 6110:64).

"...the delight of true marriage love not only endures to old age in the world, but after death becomes the delight of heaven and is there filled with an interior delight that grows more and more perfect to eternity..." (HH 379).

"A cause of apparent favor, as friendship or love is that the wife does not cease to favor her husband when his potency ceases. This favor may become love when they grow old together (n 1637 - 1640, cf CL 190)" (First Index on Marriage, FRIENDSHIP).

"That if on the part of the wife favor towards the man does not cease when faculty ceases with him, there may spring up a friendship emulating conjugial friendship as they grow old ...That there may be friendship as of that love between aged married partners is attested by experience as to the tranquility, security, amiability and abundant comity of their close companionship, intercourse, and consociation." (CL 290).

17. Intercourse in heaven also shows a use to the married partners other than the production of natural offspring. That use is that they are more united in the marriage of good and truth. It seems quite clear that this use can also be fulfilled by the ultimates with truly married partners on earth.

"That married partners enjoy similar intercourse with each other as in the world, but more delightful and blessed, yet without prolification, for which, or in place of it, they have spiritual prolification, which is that of love and wisdom. That married partners enjoy similar intercourse as in the world is because after death the male is a male and the female a female, and in both, an inclination to conjunction is implanted from creation. This inclination is an inclination of the spirit and thence of the body. Therefore, after death, when man becomes a spirit, the same mutual inclination is continued, and this cannot exist without similar intercourse. For man is man as before, nor is there anything lacking either in the male or in the female. They are like themselves as to form, and equally so as to affections and thoughts. What else can follow then, but that they have similar intercourse? and since conjugial love is chaste, pure, and holy that the intercourse is also complete? But see further on this subject in the Memorable Relation, No. 44. That the intercourse is then more delightful and blessed, is because, when that love becomes ,a love of the spirit, it becomes more interior and purer and therefore more perceptible; for every delight increases according to perception, and it so increases that its blessedness is observed in its delight." (CL 52).

"That marriages in the heavens are without prolification, in place whereof is spiritual prolification which is the prolification of love and wisdom, is because, with those who are in the spiritual world, the third thing, which is the natural is lacking. This is the containant of spiritual things, and without their containant, spiritual things are not set as are those which are procreated in the natural world. Regarded in themselves, spiritual things relate to love and wisdom. It is these, therefore, that are born of their marriages. It is said that they are born, because conjugial love perfects an angel, so uniting him with his consort that he becomes more and more a man; for as said above (n 50) two partners in heaven are not two but one angel..." (CL 53).

"And the two angelic spirits answered: 'It is quite similar.' and perceiving that they wished to know whether there are similar delights there, they said: 'They are altogether similar, but far more blessed, because the perception and sensation of angels is far more exquisite than human perception and sensation. And what life has that love unless from a vein of potency? If this fails does not that love diminish and grow cold? And is not that vigor the very measure, the very degree, and the very basis of that love? Is it not the beginning, the foundation, and the complement of it? [NB:] It is a universal law that first things exist, subsist and endure from the last. And so it is also with this love. If then there were no ultimate delights, there would be no delight of conjugial love. Then the newcomers asked, 'whether from the ultimate delights of this love offspring are born there, and if there are not offspring, of what use are they?' The angelic spirits replied, 'That there are no natural offspring, but spiritual offspring.' And they asked, 'What are spiritual offspring?' They answered, 'Through ultimate delights married partners are more united in marriage of good and truth, and the marriage of good and truth is the marriage of love and wisdom; and love and wisdom are the offspring which are born of that marriage. And as the husband in heaven is wisdom, and the wife is the love of it, and as both of these are spiritual therefore no other than spiritual offspring can be conceived and born there. Hence it is that angels do not become sad after the delights, as some do on earth, but cheerful. And this comes of the perpetual inflowing of fresh powers succeeding the former, which renew and at the same time illustrate them; for all who come into heaven return into the springtime of their youth, and into the vigor of that age and remain so." (CL 44:e; cf. CL 55, 65)

"...although the married pair have consociations there like those on earth, children are not born, but instead of children goods and truths, and thus wisdom, as has been said above. And this is why births, nativities, and generations mean in the Word, in its spiritual sense, spiritual births, nativities, and generations ...This also makes clear that marriages on the earth correspond to marriages in the heavens; and that after death man comes into the correspondence, that is, comes from natural bodily marriage into spiritual heavenly marriage, which is heaven itself and the joy of heaven." (AE 1000:5).

"Angelic wisdom grows by marriages, and it is in the place of procreation to them; for which reason it is a procreation of wisdom, whence daughters, sons, father, and mother in the Word signify such things as are of good and truth, thus which are of wisdom ...(De Conj. 11) (cf Div Wis VIII:3-4).

18. Man's spirit is said to cooperate in the sexual embrace, further confirming its internal uses in addition to the production of natural offspring.

"Man's spirit cooperates in the sexual embrace, because the spiritual in its first origin is sown forth. Nevertheless, man's spirit inflows into the natural. In man's spirit the inmost is the conjunction of good and truth, or of delight, which imitates good and of propriety which imitates truth. Therefore when angels and spirits embrace, it takes place in a similar manner. They conceive and bring forth nothing but those things which are of love and wisdom; for no prolification occurs apart from the natural." (SD 6110:40)

"...And because the sense of this love is touch and this is common to all the senses, and is also full of delights, therefore it opens the interiors of the minds as it opens the interiors of the sense, and with them the organic forms of the whole body... The spiritual delight conjoined with the natural delights, that they who are in love truly conjugial, cause amiability, and thence the faculty of growing wise. Hence it is that with angels conjugial love is according to their wisdom; and the increments of that love and at the same time of its delights are according to the increments of wisdom; and that the spiritual offspring that are born of their marriages are such things as are of wisdom from the father, and such things as are of love from the mother, which they love from spiritual parental affection - a love which adds itself to their conjugial love, and continually elevates and conjoins them. CL 211-212 Cf De Conj. 22 . (Compare the use of "spiritual parental affection" to HH 332).

19. Spiritual offspring and natural offspring both have the same origin, i.e. the marriage of good and truth.

"After this the angel spoke of the marriage of good and truth with married partners, saying that if their minds were in that marriage, the husband truth and the wife its good, they would both be in the delights of the blessedness of innocence, and thence in the happiness in which the angels of heaven are. In that state the generative power of the husband would be in perpetual spring, and thence in the effort and ability to propagate his truth; and the wife would be in perpetual reception of it from love. The wisdom that is with men from the Lord feels nothing more delightful than to propagate its truths; and than to receive them, as in the womb and so to conceive, carry in the womb and bring them forth. Of such kind are spiritual prolifications among the angels of heaven. And if you will believe it, natural prolifications also are from this origin." (CL 115:5)

20. It is therefore perfectly possible to have spiritual offspring while on earth. In one place these seem to be called the good works of chastity. We note particularly all the different uses associated with the home in addition to procreation and care for children, all of which supply delights to chaste marriages, which are carefully balanced in relation to the production of offspring in AE 1002.

"From what has been thus far presented what the good is that results from chastity in marriage can be inferred, consequently what the good works of chastity are that man does who shuns adulteries as sins against God. The good works of chastity concern either the married pair themselves, or their offspring and posterity, or the heavenly societies. The good works of chastity that concern the married pair themselves are spiritual and celestial loves, intelligence and wisdom, innocence and peace, power and protection against the hells and against evils and falsities therefrom, and manifold joys and felicities to eternity. [NB:]Those who live in chaste marriages as before described have all these. The good works of chastity that concern the offspring and posterity are that so many and so great evils do not become innate in families. For the ruling love of parents is transmitted into the offspring and sometimes to remote posterity, and becomes their hereditary nature. This is broken and softened with parents who shun adulteries as infernal and love marriages as heavenly. (3) The good works of chastity that concern the heavenly societies are that chaste marriages are the delights of heaven, that they are its seminaries, and that they are its supports. They supply delights to heaven by communications; they are seminaries to heaven by producing offspring; and they are supports to heaven by their power against the hells; for at the presence of conjugial love diabolical spirits become furious, insane, and mentally impotent, and cast themselves into the deep." (AE 1002:2-3)

"From the goods enumerated and described that result from chaste marriages it may be concluded what the evils are that result from adulteries; for such evils are the opposites of such goods; that is, in place of the spiritual and celestial loves that those have who live in chaste marriages, there are the infernal and diabolical loves that those have who are in adulteries. So in place of intelligence and wisdom that those have who live chastely in marriages are the insanities and follies that those have who are in adulteries; in place a of innocence and peace that those have who live in chaste marriages there are the deceit and no peace that those have who are in adulteries. In place of the power and protection against the hells that those have who live chastely in marriages there are the very Asmodean demons and the hells that those have who live in adulteries; in place of the beauty that those have who live chastely in marriages there is the deformity that those have who live in adulteries, which is monstrous according to their quality. Their final lot is that from the extreme impotence to which they are at length reduced they become emptied of all the fire and delight of life, and dwell alone in deserts as images of the slothfulness and weariness of their own life." (AD 1003:3).

"Good and truth are not given apart from substances, and substances are not given apart from forms, thus substance is form and form is substance-Propagations therefore are substantial and material." (First Index on Marriage, SUBSTANCE)

21. The love of venery for lusts alone without any desire for offspring is strongly condemned. But where this teaching is given it clearly applies primarily to adulterous relations, not necessarily except by inference to marriage. It is still consistent with the teaching that there can be no conjugial marriage apart from the desire for offspring. Are the Writings also hinting at the dangers of homosexuality (unnatural conjunctions) as a result of those who maliciously extinguish the desire for offspring - a sobering thought in our day.

"There are many, both men and women, especially in Christendom who because they contract matrimony late in life, and because they are punished if they have offspring illegitimately thence acquire the (perverse) disposition to exercise venery without any desire of offspring; -- thus they utterly exclude that which is the center and inmost (end and principle of marriage). Such desire of mere venery being damnable because devoid of love truly conjugial, the are so long separate from heaven (As they cherish the same ; and in case they thus live and die they are after death grievously punished... I did not however, witness the (whole) punishment, I only saw that they were then inverted, or (turned with their) head downward and their exteriors or corporeal principles extracted, so as to appear drawn out in a long trail upwards; their interiors however, that is their spiritual principles, are led into the same direction (sursum); thus they are divested of that profane cupidity of exercising venery merely for the lusts sake alone, without any desire of offspring. Thus they are, as it were, put to death by those (punishing) spirits -who even declared they were desirous to kill the; (for) such is the disposition of those spirits, that they would slay them, wherefore (as before stated) they lay them supine, and as it were with knives dissect them. The souls also imagine themselves to be slain, but in this manner they are (only) divested of such lascivious lust, 1748, Mar 7. (SD 1202-3).

"...Then it was given to speak concerning the pleasantness of life, that pleasantness is the life of man, and that they are so created by the Lord that they might create uses of pleasantness; as may be sufficiently evident from the pleasure of the senses, as from taste, and from venery; which because they have a use along with themselves, to wit that man may be nourished, and that he may be procreated, therefore pleasantnesses are added to their use, which pleasantnesses are increased wholly according to use. So it was appointed. But those who seek for pleasantnesses without flowing from use, or according to appearance without intending use, then indeed pleasantnesses are felt by them, although of a gross sort; but because (they are) not from use, or from the Lord through use, they are like those loathsome and hurtful insects, and are such things as destroy; and are such pleasantnesses as destroy them, because no spiritual and celestial life is in their pleasantnesses; therefore (these persons) become unhappy; to wit are ejected from societies, and so sit solitary and are vastated, till all their crafty and injurious principle is vastated, so that they are no longer theirs (1748, July 3). (SD 2506).

"It was said to those who are on high, inasmuch as they are interior adulterers, that this single consideration demonstrated that adulteries are diabolical, namely that as marriages are for the sake of the propagation of offspring, thus of terrestrial societies and thence of celestial (heavenly) which as they are acknowledged has in it a Divine end, -- therefore, whatever destroys or prevents marriages and thus destroys propagation, that is (essentially) diabolical. 1748, Oct 15 ."( SD 3697)

"Concerning the Lascivious. There are lascivious ones, who have lasciviousness solely for an end. Though having wives, they care nothing for the married state except in reference to the passion which is their end. For the same reason they desire not children in wedlock because the situation of a wife, with such a prospect, forbids the gratification which, as an end rules everything. They are therefore prone to sexual indulgences beyond those which are lawful with a wife, which they practice in base modes, and thus pervert those who would otherwise make good wives and bear them away into lascivious habits. And when such lascivious ones cannot cohabit with a wife, they loathe her and give themselves up to wantoness with harlots, thereby causing their wives to become harlots, utterly regardless of the conjugial debt and of the procreation of offspring. Being thus prone to licentiousness, they dread to be with other men's wives, both because they have contracted a disgust for a wife, and loath all wives, and because they persuade themselves that these are also of the same quality...(a wife of this sort) was seen clothed with a simple garment of dark color. Lascivious males who bear deceits and malice in their minds, invite such to their companionship, and by their means devise deceitful and malicious plots; and because they plotted deceits and malignities, they contrived how they might produce infants by phantasies, and place them in the bed of another who was delighted with infants, and thus might infuse the phantasy of his being a husband, and that he too might thus incite some female to illicit cohabitation; from which it appeared that they were not only malignities, but basely deceitful, as thus wishing by means of the innocent to execute wily machinations. The lascivious wife mentioned above, who was seen in the kitchen apartment, had a knife in her hand, and in her phantasy was an infant. Her phantasies were presented by different circumgyrations of her body, which were quick like those of a wheel, she still holding knives in her hand. While in this fantasy of an infant lying below (her) the idea assumed a character of cruelty, as if prompting her to kill the infant, because such is their quality that having lasciviousness for an end, they are prone to murder infants, as they do not des- ire them, but would fain put them to death under the promptings of their lustful passions..." (SD 3922-4). (cf. CL 407). "they wished to kill them if they could; but as soon as it was told them, though it was not true, that they were their own infants their fury and ferocity at once left them and they loved them desperately."

"Concerning the punishment of the lascivious. There was a certain spirit in a medium altitude above my head who in his lifetime had lived lasciviously and yet had been at the same time an assiduous reader of the Word. I heard respecting him what his quality had been during his life, namely that he had been in the delight of variety so as to have cherished no constant love towards any, but spent his time in brothels having intercourse with their inmates, and yet afterwards rejecting each of them in turn. As a consequence he had defrauded many, making no distinction whether those with whom he had to do were married or unmarried. In this way he divested himself of all love truly conjugial, as also of the desire of having children; and as he eventually came to do what he did without rebuke of conscience, he thence acquired that unnatural habit, or, as I might say, contracted an unnatural nature." (SD 1663).

"There was a certain spirit in middle altitude above the head, who in the life of the body had lived wantonly, delighted with variety, so that he loved no one constantly, but passed his time in brothels, and thus had scortated with many, every one of whom he afterwards rejected. I hence came to pass that he had beguiled many, and had thereby extinguished the desire for marriage, even for the procreation of children and thus had contracted an unnatural nature. All these things were disclosed, and he was miserably punished, and this in the sign of the angels; and afterwards he was cast into hell" (AC 2746).

22. To adulterers the only real purpose they see in marriage is producing children. So it doesn't matter much to them who they have children by. This teaching is important for reflection lest by imbalance of attitude we destroy something inadvertently in our desire to preserve the love of procreation.

"...And since adultery is hell it follows that unless a man abstains from adulteries and shuns them and turns away from them as infernal he shuts up heaven to himself, and does not receive the least influx therefrom. Afterwards he reasons that marriages and adulteries are alike, but that marriages must be maintained in kingdoms for the sake of order and on account of the education of offspring; also that adulteries are not criminal, since offspring are equally born from them; and they are not harmful to women since they can endure them, and by them the procreation of the human race is promoted... That such reasonings, which at this day possess the minds of most men in the Christian world, are Stygian, will be seen in what follows." (AE 982:5).

"There are many there (in the hell of adulterers) of family and social position (not so much from the common people) because they have taken up the principle that marriages are for the sake of offspring and it matters not whether they are violated by others. And they laugh at the sanctity of marriage, calling them silly..." (De Conj 79).


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Love of Offspring 1

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